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Amended February 2013.

1. SIGMA XI, THE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH SOCIETY
2. BYLAWS OF THE SOCIETY
   
3. BYLAW I. Activities of the Society. Activities appropriate to the
4. fulfillment of the object of the Society include: the election to
5. membership and associate membership in the Society of students,
6. faculty members, investigators in research institutions and others
7. who meet the requirements for membership set forth in Article II,
8. Section 3 A and B of the Constitution; the maintenance of
9. companionship among the membership in various fields of science
10. through association with chapters; the holding of meetings for the
11. discussion of scientific subjects; the publication of American
12. Scientist and other publications devoted to the dissemination of
13. scientific information, especially the results of research in progress;
14. and the encouragement of scientific research through other means
15. such as Grants-in-Aid of Research to individual investigators, the
16. presentation of awards for excellence in research and the
17. maintenance of the lectureship programs.
   
18. BYLAW II. Membership in the Society
   
19. Section 1. Membership of Chapters. A. Chapters. The
20. membership of a chapter, subject to the requirements of Article IV,
21. Section 1 of the Constitution, shall consist of the active Members and
22. the active Associate Members who present satisfactory credentials
23. showing election to membership in the Society, who request
24. affiliation with the chapter and who are accepted by the chapter.
25. They shall be recorded as such in the Headquarters of the Society.
   
26. B. Membership-at-Large. The membership-at-large, subject to the
27. requirements of Article IV, Section 1 of the Constitution, shall
28. consist of the active Members and the active Associate Members
29. who are not affiliated with any chapter. They shall be recorded as
30. such in the Headquarters of the Society.
   
31. Section 2. Criteria for Membership. A. General Requirements.
32. In the expanding field of science, enumeration of those disciplines
33. appropriate to membership in the Society is not possible as the sole
34. basis for defining the criteria for membership. For this reason,
35. nomination of an individual engaged in scientific research may be
36. made provided that the nominee is, by the quantitative emphasis of
37. the work combined with its synthesis and qualitative stature, deemed
38. eligible for nomination.
   
39. B. Noteworthy Achievement. Noteworthy achievement in research
40. specified for election or promotion to full membership, Article II,
41. Section 3 A of the Constitution, must be evidenced by publications,
42. patents, written reports or a thesis or dissertation. Membership in the
43. Society is neither linked to the possession of any degree nor
44. contingent upon belonging to some other organization.
   
45. C. Research Aptitude. Research aptitude specified for election to
46. associate membership, Article II, Section 3 B of the Constitution,
47. must be evidenced by independent investigation. Associate
48. membership is offered to encourage young investigators with
49. promise to continue careers in research. In making the nomination
50. for such membership, both the nominator and the seconder attest to
51. the nominee's potential for future promotion to Member.
   
52. Section 3. Nomination and Election and Initiation Procedures.
53. A. Responsibility. The Committee designated by the Board will
54. have responsibility to set policy regarding nomination, election, and
55. initiation procedures. Changes in policy will be communicated to
56. the chapters for a comment period of not less than 30 days. After the
57. comment period the changes may be revised for a new comment
58. period. Should fifteen (15) or more chapters object to a policy
59. change in writing and objections cannot be resolved in a new
60. comment period, the policy change will be held in abeyance until
61. the next Assembly of Delegates where it will be presented for vote.
62. Otherwise the policy change will be implemented upon the close of
63. the comment period.
   
64. B. Honorary Members. Honorary Members shall be initiated into
65. the Society by the President, or by a person designated by the
66. President, at a suitable ceremony.
   
67. C. Pledge of the Society. Members-elect and Associate Members-
68. elect shall be informed of the aims and objectives of the Society, and
69. shall be required to assent, either orally or in writing to the president
70. of the electing chapter or the president's deputy, or in writing to the
71. Chair of the committee designated by the Board , to the following
72. Pledge: "Do you hereby pledge yourself, in accordance with the
73. purposes and objectives of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research
74. Society, to encourage original investigations in science, to foster
75. companionship and cooperation among scientists, to maintain honor,
76. integrity and honesty in all scientific activities, and to assume the
77. other continuing responsibilities of membership?" Members-elect
78. and Associate Members-elect who attend a regular initiation are
79. expected to have read the culture, mission and vision statements of
80. the Society, whereupon they are admitted to membership in the
81. Society.
   
82. D. Certificate of Membership. (i) Members and Associate
83. Members . Upon admission to membership, each new Member or
84. Associate Member shall receive a certificate of membership which
85. shall be in a form approved by the Assembly of Delegates, bear the
86. Seal of the Society, and be signed by the President of the Society, the
87. Executive Director, and the president and secretary of the electing
88. chapter or the Chair of the committee designated by the Board. Each
89. new Member or Associate Member shall also receive the official
90. emblem, or the authorization to secure such emblem.
   
91. (ii) Honorary Members. Honorary Members shall receive a
92. suitable certificate of membership approved by the Board of
93. Directors, bearing the Seal of the Society, and signed by the
94. President and the Executive Director.
   
95. Section 7. Changes in Membership Status. A. Active to Inactive
96. Active members who fail to comply with the provisions of Article
97. IV, Section 1 of the Constitution shall be transferred to inactive
98. membership, and shall be recorded as such in the Headquarters of the
99. Society.
   
100. B. Inactive to Active. An inactive member may, at any time and at
101. the member's discretion, be returned to active membership by
102. complying with the provisions of Article IV, Section 1 of the
103. Constitution, and by indicating to the Headquarters of the Society the
104. chapter, or the membership-at-large, with which the member wishes
105. to be affiliated. Such change shall be recorded appropriately in the
106. Headquarters of the Society.
   
107. C. Emeritus Status. Any active Member or Associate Member
108. who has paid annual dues for the immediately preceding 10 years
109. and who has reached the age of 65, or who, at any age, has paid
110. annual dues for the immediately preceding 30 years, may upon
111. retirement request emeritus status. This status permits continued
112. active association with the Society as provided for in Bylaw IV,
113. Section 1 A (iii).
 
   
125. BYLAW III. Organization of the Society
   
126. Section 1. Chapters. A. Chapters. (i) Location and
127. Requirements for a Chapter . A chapter may be established by
128. action of the Board of Directors, advised by a committee designated
129. by the Board , at any location where scientific research is cultivated
130. and promoted. Of considerable importance are evidences of official
131. commitments to the development and support of research by the
132. institution in the immediate and long-range future.
   
133. Ordinarily locations approved for chapter status will be single
134. educational, governmental, or industrial institutions whose
135. permanency is reasonably assured. In some instances chapters may
136. be approved at locations whose research strength and potential is
137. dependent upon the combined research organizations of two or more
138. institutions so situated physically that they can participate together as
139. companions in zealous research.
   
140. Before any petitioning group can be recommended for chapter status,
141. a committee designated by the Board shall ascertain by inquiry,
142. study, and visits, where appropriate, if the conditions at the
143. institution(s) involved are conducive to further scientific research.
   
144. (ii) The Petition. A petition for the granting of a charter for the
145. establishment of a chapter shall be communicated to the Executive
146. Director, who, in turn, shall refer it to the committee designated by
147. the Board to determine the suitability of the petition. At least 18
148. active members, of whom at least 9 must be full active Members,
149. must agree in the petition to become members of the chapter. If the
150. committee , by at least a three-fourths majority vote, recommends
151. approval of the Board of Directors, and it, in turn, approves by a like
152. vote, the Executive Director shall initiate the process of installation
153. of a new chapter.
   
154. (iii) Chapter Charter. Each charter for the establishment of a new
155. chapter shall be signed by the President and the Executive Director,
156. and shall be presented by the installing officer to the petitioning
157. group at a special installation ceremony arranged by the petitioning
158. group in consultation with the Executive Director. The form of the
159. charter is set forth in Bylaw III, Section 1 D (i) and (ii) , below.
   
160. (iv) Affiliation with a Chapter. A Member or Associate Member,
161. upon presenting satisfactory credentials showing election to
162. membership in the Society, and complying with the provisions of
163. Article IV, Section 1 of the Constitution, is entitled to appropriate
164. membership in any chapter depending upon such relationship to the
165. institution(s) hosting the chapter as said institution(s) may require.
   
166. (v) Revocation of a Chapter Charter. Any chapter not in good
167. standing (Bylaw III, 1C) will be placed on probation for a one year
168. period by the committee designated by the Board to oversee chapter
169. activities. If after one year on probation, a chapter has not returned
170. to good standing, the committee may initiate the necessary action for
171. revocation of the chapter's charter as indicated below. The charter of
172. a chapter may be revoked by the Board of Directors, by a three-
173. fourths majority vote of those present at a meeting of the Board,
174. provided the Board action was taken in response to a three-fourths
175. majority vote of the members of the committee present at a meeting
176. following a thorough investigation of the chapter concerned and the
177. taking of all possible remedial steps to preclude the necessity for
178. such action by the committee.
   
179. B. Good Standing of Chapters. The Committee designated by the
180. Board will have responsibility to set policy regarding good standing
181. of chapters. Changes in policy will be communicated to the chapters
182. for a comment period of not less than 30 days. After the comment
183. period the changes may be revised for a new comment period.
184. Should fifteen (15) or more chapters object to a policy change in
185. writing and objections cannot be resolved in a new comment period,
186. the policy change will be held in abeyance until the next Assembly
187. of Delegates where it will be presented for vote. Otherwise the
188. policy change will be implemented upon the close of the comment
189. period.
   
190. C. (reserved)
   
191. D. The Charter. The charter issued to a chapter shall contain two
192. paragraphs, to wit:
   
193. (i) First Paragraph. The first paragraph of the charter of a chapter
194. shall be in the following form:
   
195. "Be it hereby known that a charter for the establishment of a chapter
196. of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society at .........to be known as
197. the ........Chapter, is hereby granted to the following persons as
198. Charter Members and Charter Associate Members, conveying to
199. them and to their duly elected successors all the privileges and
200. responsibilities conferred by the Constitution of the Society; (list of
201. names)"
   
202. (ii) Second Paragraph. The second paragraph of the charter of a
203. chapter shall be in the following form:
   
204. "In witness whereof, the signatures of the President and the
205. Executive Director, together with the Seal of the Society, are
206. hereunto affixed on the ..........day of ..........in the year......."
   
207. E. Geographic Regions. Chapters located in North America are
208. assigned to the geographic region in which they are located.
209. Chapters located outside North America shall be assigned to a
210. geographic region by the Board of Directors after consultation with
211. the chapter. A chapter having special ties to a chapter in another
212. region may ask to be reassigned, and the Board of Directors shall act
213. on such requests. Once each decade the Board of Directors shall
214. evaluate the distribution of members and chapters within the
215. geographic regions and make appropriate changes to geographic
216. boundaries.
   
217. F. Constituency Groups. Chapters located in the United States and
218. its territories are assigned by the Board of Directors to one of four
219. constituency groups of chapters from similar institutions. Chapters
220. located outside of the United States and its territories are assigned to
221. the Canadian/International constituency group. A chapter may ask to
222. be reassigned to a different constituency group, and the Board of
223. Directors shall act on such requests.
   
224. Section 2. The Assembly of Delegates. A. Duties of the
225. Assembly . The Assembly of Delegates shall meet annually in
226. General Session at which time the delegates shall consider and act
227. upon business. Elections of officers will be carried out as described
228. in Bylaw III 3. Elections of Directors, Associate Directors, and
229. members of the Committee on Nominations will be carried out as
230. described in Bylaw III 4. While in-person meetings are preferred,
231. such Assemblies may be convened by any means that provide for
232. discussion as needed to complete the business of the Assembly,
233. including electronic.
   
234. B. Caucuses. In addition to the General Sessions of the Assembly
235. of Delegates attended by all delegates, the Annual Meeting shall
236. provide time for caucuses of each geographic region and
237. constituency group at which time the delegates may meet and
238. conduct such discussions and business, including the election of a
239. Director, a member of the Committee on Nominations, and members
240. of the region or group nominating committees, as may be required.
241. The appropriate Director shall preside over each caucus. Directors
242. prepare agendas of matters to be discussed, which shall include
243. matters of interest to science and to the Society as a whole, as well as
244. matters specific to the interest of the geographic region or
245. constituency group. The Director may act as spokesperson for the
246. geographic region or constituency group at General Sessions of the
247. Assembly of Delegates. In years when the Assembly is not held in
248. person, caucuses may be held by any means that provide for
249. discussion as needed to complete the business of the caucus.
   
250. C. (reserved)
   
251. D. (reserved)
   
252. E. (reserved)
   
253. F. Agenda of the General Session of the Assembly of Delegates.
254. (i) Order of Business. The Preliminary Agenda of the General
255. Session of an Assembly of Delegates shall set forth the order of
256. business proposed by the President. The Preliminary Agenda may be
257. amended at the opening of the First Session of said Assembly, and
258. shall be adopted by a majority vote of the Assembly of Delegates.
   
259. (ii) Change in the Order of Business. The regular order of
260. business, having been adopted, may be suspended or modified by a
261. three-fourths majority vote of the Assembly of Delegates.
   
262. (iii) Rules of Order. Meetings of the Assembly of Delegates shall
263. be conducted in accordance with the current edition of Robert's
264. Rules of Order Newly Revised , except when in conflict with the
265. Constitution or Bylaws, in which case the Constitution or Bylaws
266. shall prevail. The President shall serve as the presiding officer of the
267. Assembly, and the Executive Director as its secretary. The presiding
268. officer may limit debate for the purpose of maintaining the time
269. schedule of the Assembly.
   
270. (iv) Limitations on Resolutions. (a) No resolution, except those
271. reported by official committees or those hereinafter defined, will be
272. in order for consideration by an Assembly of Delegates unless
273. having been presented first to the Committee designated by the
274. Board. All proposed resolutions of a substantive nature, including
275. motions, to be eligible for passage at an Assembly of Delegates, must
276. have been submitted 150 days prior to the convening of that
277. Assembly of Delegates and circulated to the chapters 60 days in
278. advance of the meeting. The Executive Director shall inform the
279. chapters of the final date for submission of proposed resolutions, and
280. invite the chapters to make their submissions through the Executive
281. Director. (b) Motions and resolutions of a substantive nature offered
282. by the Board of Directors, or motions and resolutions merely
283. expressing the sense of the Assembly, such as commemorative
284. resolutions, are exempt from this provision. (c) Proposals
285. concerning resolutions of a substantive nature may be considered by
286. the Assembly of Delegates for inclusion on the agenda of the next
287. Assembly of Delegates, and a majority vote of the current Assembly
288. of Delegates on such a proposal shall require that it be placed on the
289. agenda of the next Assembly.
   
290. (v) Policy on Resolutions. The Committee designated by the Board
291. will have responsibility to set policy regarding the handling of
292. resolutions as submitted by chapters. Changes in policy will be
293. communicated to the chapters for a comment period of not less than
294. 30 days. After the comment period the changes may be revised for
295. a new comment period. Should fifteen (15) or more chapters object to
296. a policy change in writing and objections cannot be resolved in a
297. new comment period, the policy change will be held in abeyance
298. until the next Assembly of Delegates where it will be presented for
299. vote. Otherwise the policy change will be implemented upon the
300. close of the comment period.
   
301. Section 3. Officers of the Society. A. Officers The officers of the
302. Society consist of the President, Past-President, President-Elect, and
303. the Treasurer. The Executive Director serving as Executive
304. Secretary is also an Officer of the Society but without vote.
   
305. B. Election of Officers. (i) Nomination by the Committee on
306. Nominations . The Committee on Nominations shall present to the
307. chapters through the Executive Director, at least 60 days prior to the
308. convening of the Assembly of Delegates, a report which shall
309. provide: (a) at least two nominees for President-elect; (b) at least
310. two nominees for Treasurer, when required; together with (c) the
311. normal biographical information such as would be available in
312. standard publications and, in addition, data on past service to the
313. Society together with the assurance that the nominee will serve if
314. elected. To assist the Committee in its selection of nominees for
315. Treasurer, the President, in consultation with the President-elect and
316. the Chair of the Committee, shall appoint a search committee of not
317. less than three and not more than five persons, none of whom may be
318. an officer of the Society and not more than two of whom may be
319. members of the Committee on Nominations. The search committee
320. shall be appointed not less than three months before the Committee
321. on Nominations meets to determine its nominees for Treasurer.
   
322. In seeking candidates for President-Elect, the Committee on
323. Nominations shall make clear to potential candidates that election is
324. to a three year term, each year with distinct title, duties, and
325. responsibilities, and that additionally there are duties and
326. responsibilities associated with being a retired president. Further, it
327. shall be made clear that failure to complete any part of the three year
328. term for any reason will end the term in full—the President-Elect
329. must be in office on the day of transition to assume the title and
330. duties of President; the President must be in office on the day of
331. transition to assume the title and duties of Immediate Past President;
332. and the Immediate Past President must be in office on the day of
333. transition to assume the title and duties of a retired president.
   
334. (ii) Additional Nominations. Additional nominations for
335. President-elect and for Treasurer may be made provided each
336. nominee is supported by at least three chapters and further provided
337. that the chapters have been furnished by the proposers through the
338. Executive Director at least 21 days prior to the convening of the
339. Assembly of Delegates with the name of the nominee and the
340. additional information required in (i) above.
   
341. C. Voting. Voting for officers shall be by ballot, which may be electronic.
342. Each active full and associate member shall have one vote. The vote
343. shall be completed within one month of the Assembly of Delegates.
   
344. D. Vacancies. (i) In One Office. In the case of a vacancy in the
345. office of President, the President-elect shall assume the office and
346. the duties of the President they succeed and also serve the full
347. presidential term of one year for which they were elected. In the case
348. of a vacancy in the office of President-elect, the most recently retired
349. president shall assume the duties, but not the office, until the next
350. Assembly of Delegates, at which time both a President and a
351. President-elect shall be elected. The newly elected President shall,
352. in the interim between election by the Assembly of Delegates and the
353. beginning of the elected term, serve as the President-elect. In the
354. case of a vacancy in the office of Immediate Past President, the most
355. recently retired President available shall assume the duties, but not
356. the office, for the remainder of the term. In the case of a vacancy in
357. the office of Treasurer, the Executive Committee shall nominate and
358. the Board of Directors shall approve a Treasurer to serve until the
359. next Assembly of Delegates, at which time a successor shall be
360. elected for the unexpired balance of the term of office.
   
361. (ii) President and President-elect. Both Vacant. If the offices of
362. both President and President-elect are simultaneously vacant, the
363. Immediate Past President, or the Executive Director or Treasurer,
364. shall convene the Board of Directors, which shall have the authority
365. to fill the office of President and to appoint an individual to assume
366. the duties, but not the office, of President-elect until the next
367. Assembly of Delegates, at which time both a President and a
368. President-elect shall be elected. Those individuals elected shall
369. immediately assume office completing the unexpired terms of their
370. predecessors prior to serving the terms for which they were elected.
   
371. Section 4. Board of Directors. A. Membership. The Board of
372. Directors shall consist of the President, the President-elect, the
373. Immediate Past President, the Treasurer, the Executive Director
374. (without vote), a Director elected for each geographic region by the
375. chapters in the region, a Director elected for each constituency group
376. by the chapters in the group, and a Director elected by the
377. membership-at-large. No Director may occupy more than one seat
378. on the Board of Directors.
   
379. B. Election of Directors, Associate Directors, and members of
380. the Committee on Nominations for Geographic Regions and for
381. Constituencies. (i) Nomination and Voting. At the Annual
382. Meeting one year prior to electing a Director, Associate Director, or
383. member of the Committee on Nominations for a particular region or
384. constituency, the caucus of each geographic region or constituency
385. shall appoint a Nominating Committee. The Director shall be an ex
386. officio member of the Nominating Committee. The Nominating
387. Committee shall report to the chapters of its region or constituency,
388. through the Executive Director, at least 60 days prior to the
389. convening of the caucus , a slate of nominees from the region or
390. constituency for each position up for election, together with the
391. normal biographical data, information on the nominee's past service
392. to the Society and the assurance that the nominee will serve if
393. elected. Voting shall be by ballot, which may be electronic, and each
394. active full and associate member in the appropriate region and
395. constituency shall have one vote. The vote shall be completed within
396. one month of the caucus.
   
397. The nominee receiving the largest number of votes shall be declared
398. elected, except that if two, or more, nominees are tied for the largest
399. number of votes, they shall enter a run-off election. A Director shall
400. be limited to two full successive terms of office, but may be
401. nominated again for a term commencing at least three years after
402. termination of the previous term. The Associate Director shall assist
403. the Director and, at the request of the Director, may attend in a non-
404. voting capacity a meeting of the Board of Directors in place of the
405. Director. The rotation of elections shall be set by the Board of
406. Directors, in compliance with Bylaw III.
   
407. (ii) Vacancies. In the event of a vacancy in the office of Director,
408. that vacancy shall be filled by the Associate Director. If there is no
409. Associate Director, the Executive Committee shall nominate and the
410. Board of Directors shall approve a Director to serve until the next
411. Annual Meeting at which time a special election shall be held by the
412. affected geographic region or constituency to fill the unexpired term,
413. following the regular procedures. If a Director of a region or a
414. constituency becomes a member of a different region or
415. constituency, the Director may, with the concurrence of the chapters
416. in the original region or constituency, continue to serve as a Director
417. until the expiration of the Director's term. Concurrence of the region
418. or constituency will be determined by ballot, which may be
419. electronic. A quorum will be considered as 50% plus one of the
420. chapters in that region or constituency. A 50% plus one or more
421. approval will be required.
   
422. (iii) Notification. The name of the newly elected Director (if any),
423. the members of the Committee on Nominations (if any), and the
424. members of the Geographic Region or Constituency Nominating
425. Committees shall be reported to the Executive Director by the
426. presiding officer of each caucus.
   
427. (iv) Duties. The Director for a geographic region or constituency, in
428. addition to the duties stated in the Constitution and in other sections
429. of the Bylaws, shall work with, give advice to, and contribute to the
430. health of chapters within the region or the constituency.
   
431. D. Election of the Director for the Membership-at-Large. (i)
432. Nominations and Voting. At least one year before the election of a
433. Director by the membership-at-large, the membership-at-large shall
434. elect a Nominating Committee consisting of 5 members-at-large.
435. The Nominating Committee shall present to the membership-at-large
436. through the Executive Director at least 60 days prior to the voting for
437. Director, a report which will provide at least three nominees from the
438. membership-at-large together with the normal biographical
439. information, data on the nominee's past service to the Society and
440. assurance that the nominee will serve if elected. The Executive
441. Director shall advise the membership-at-large of the nominees for
442. Director, and their biographical information, and provide the
443. opportunity for each member-at-large to cast a ballot to elect the
444. Director within a 60 day period. The nominee receiving the largest
445. number of votes shall be declared elected. A Director shall be limited
446. to two full successive terms of office but may be nominated again for
447. a term commencing at least three years after termination of the
448. Director's previous term. The Board of Directors is empowered to
449. detail further procedures for the election of the Nominating
450. Committee and the Director.
   
451. (ii) Vacancies. In the event of a vacancy in the office of Director
452. from the membership-at-large, the Executive Committee shall
453. nominate and the Board of Directors shall approve a Director to
454. complete the unexpired term.
   
455. (iii) Notification. The name of the newly elected Director and the
456. members of the Nominating Committee shall be reported to the
457. membership-at-large by the Executive Director.
   
458. E. Quorum of the Board of Directors. Eleven of the Directors
459. Officers with vote shall constitute a quorum of the Board of
460. Directors.
   
461. F. Terms of Regional and Constituency Group Elected
462. Positions. From time to time unanticipated events may require the
463. alteration of the normal three year terms of office for Directors,
464. Associate Directors, and members of the Committee on
465. Nominations. The Board of Directors will make such adjustments
466. to terms prior to the election for the affected term and announce
467. such changes along with the announcement of the nominees as
468. described in Bylaw III 4 B.
   
469. Section 5. The Executive Committee. A. Membership. (i) the
470. Executive Committee shall consist of the President, Past-President,
471. President-Elect, Treasurer, and two Directors selected as described in
472. (i). The Executive Director shall also be a member, without vote.
473. (i) Selection of Members. The Board of Directors shall, at a
474. meeting held prior to 1 July of each year, designate in even-
475. numbered years a Director elected by a constituency group and in
476. odd-numbered years a Director elected by a geographic region to
477. serve on the Executive Committee for the ensuing two years. In
478. selecting the Director to serve, consideration shall be given to the
479. availability of the individual to serve for two years and to attend
480. meetings.
   
481. (ii) Selection of Alternates. If, in connection with the call of a
482. meeting of the Executive Committee, it shall be determined that an
483. officer or designated member will be unable to attend the meeting, it
484. shall be the option of that individual to select, from among the other
485. members of the Board of Directors, an alternate to attend in a non-
486. voting capacity in the member's place.
   
487. B. Duties and Limitations. The Executive Committee of the
488. Board of Directors shall have the following specific duties, subject,
489. however, to the conditions, limitations and requirements set forth
490. below.
   
491. (i) Responsibilities. The Executive Committee shall have the
492. responsibility to act for the Board of Directors between meetings
493. with respect to matters not excluded in subsection (vii) below: (a)
494. when action is required and the exigencies of the situation will not
495. permit a delay until the next meeting of the Board of Directors or
496. until a ballot can be taken; or (b) when the degree of confidentiality
497. is so great as to require consideration by a smaller group; or (c)
498. when the Executive Director requires an advise-and-consent service. The
499. Executive Committee shall also have the responsibility to assist the
500. Board of Directors by (a) giving preliminary consideration to matters
501. where an appropriate committee does not exist or when time does not
502. allow referral to the appropriate committee, (b) meeting shortly
503. before each meeting of the Board of Directors to aid in assisting the
504. Board of Directors in achieving informed decisions in a short period
505. of time, and (c) taking action on specific matters as requested by the
506. Board of Directors.
   
507. (ii) Limitations. The Executive Committee shall not have the
508. power to: (a) elect or remove officers, except to recommend removal
509. of the Executive Director; (b) act in contravention of policies
510. established by the Board of Directors; (c) authorize the sale or other
511. disposition of all or any substantial portion of the assets of the
512. Society; (d) act for the Board of Directors in granting and revoking
513. charters for chapters or (e) create and authorize new policy.
   
514. (iii) Record of Actions. A record shall be kept of the formal actions
515. of the Executive Committee, and a report thereon shall be made to
516. the next meeting of the Board of Directors.
   
517. (vii) Quorum. Five members shall constitute a quorum of the
518. Executive Committee.
   
519. Section 6. Committees of the Society. Unless otherwise specified
520. in the Bylaws or in a resolution of the Board of Directors, the
521. membership of Committees of the Society will be by appointment by
522. the President, with the advice and consent of the President-elect,
523. upon recommendation of the Committee Chair. The President and
524. the President-elect shall be members, ex officio, and with the vote, of
525. all committees except the Committees on Audit Review and
526. Nominations. A Chair of a committee other than the Committee on
527. Nominations, may also invite other individuals, as resource persons
528. without vote, if in consultation with the Executive Director such
529. participation is deemed necessary for the discharge of the
530. Committee's mandate.
   
531. A. Committee on Finances. (a) Membership of the Committee.
532. The Committee on Finances shall consist of the Treasurer as Chair,
533. together with the President, the President-elect and the Executive
534. Director, ex officiis, and six members, three of whom shall not be
535. Directors, nominated by the Treasurer and approved by the Board of
536. Directors for three-year staggered terms. An elected member of the
537. Committee shall be limited to two full successive terms but may be
538. nominated again for a term commencing at least three years after
539. termination of the previous term. (b) Duties. It shall be the duty of
540. this Committee to advise the Board of Directors of the Society and of
541. the Corporation regarding the raising and acquisition of capital
542. funds; the investment of its endowments, funds and reserves; and the
543. annual budgets for research, operations and capital equipment,
544. including the physical plant, debits/net assets, and
545. expenditure/income patterns. It shall review and modify the
546. Executive Director's annual budget for the consideration of the
547. Board of Directors, and a copy of the annual budget will be furnished
548. to each chapter at least 60 days prior to the Assembly of Delegates.
   
549. B. Committee on Audit Review. The Committee on Audit
550. Review shall consist of three members appointed by the Board of
551. Directors at the Annual Meeting of the Board of Directors of the
552. Corporation to serve between Annual Assemblies of Delegates for
553. three-year staggered terms. Current officers or Directors are not
554. eligible to serve on the Committee on Audit Review. The senior
555. member shall serve as Chair. It shall be the duty of this committee
556. to: (a) discuss with the auditors the scope and results of their
557. examinations, (b) establish and maintain an open line of
558. communication between the Board of Directors and the auditors, (c)
559. assure itself that the accounting procedures and financial controls of
560. the Society and of the Corporation adequately safeguard the assets of
561. the Society and of the Corporation and ensure the reliability of its
562. financial records and (d) ascertain that the official auditors do
563. contribute to Sigma Xi any and all of the affirmative comments and
564. suggestions which can be helpful in improving the overall operations
565. of the Society.
   
566. C. Committee on Nominations. (a) The Committee on
567. Nominations shall consist of one member elected by each geographic
568. region, one member elected by each constituency group, one member
569. elected by the membership-at-large, and the three most recently
570. retired and available presidents of the Society. The Chair shall be
571. selected by the Committee from among its membership, but shall
572. not be drawn from the retired presidents. No Director may serve on the
573. Committee. The elected members of the Committee shall be elected
574. to three-year rotating terms. An elected member of the Committee
575. shall be limited to one three year term but may nominated again be
576. for a term commencing at least three years after termination of the
577. previous term. It shall be the duty of this Committee to present
578. nominations to the Assembly of Delegates the officers to be for
579. elected as required by Bylaw III, Section 3 B (i), which nominations
580. may not include individuals currently serving on the Committee. All
581. nominations by this Committee shall reach Executive Director in the
582. sufficient time to be included in the call of the Assembly of
583. Delegates as required in Article III, Section 2 B of the Constitution.
584. Procedures of this Committee shall conform to those established by
585. the Executive Committee, and copies thereof shall be furnished to
586. each member of the Committee immediately after election or
587. designation. The term of this Committee shall commence upon the
588. adjournment of the Assembly of Delegates and terminate upon the
589. adjournment of the succeeding Assembly of Delegates.
   
590. D. Other Committees of the Society. Committees for the
591. operations and activities of the Society may be established and
592. disestablished by the Board of Directors from time to time. The
593. Board of Directors shall define the duties and responsibilities of a
594. committee, the number of members to serve on the committee, and
595. the duration of the committee.
   
596. E. Terms of Chairs and Members of Committees. Terms of
597. chairs and members of all committees of the Society, unless provided
598. for in a specific Bylaw or Board Resolution, shall be for three-year
599. periods.
   
600. F. Reports of Committees. Reports and recommendations of
601. committees made to the Board of Directors of the Society shall also
602. be considered made to the Board of Directors of the Corporation
603. whenever and wherever deemed necessary.
   
604. Section 7. Meetings. A. Notice. Notice shall be interpreted to be:
605. (a) 15 days for meetings of the Board of Directors, and (b) five days
606. for meetings of the Executive Committee and any committee of the
607. Society.
   
608. B. Manner of Giving Notice. Notice shall be given by mail,
609. telephone, telegraph, electronically or personally. Meetings may be
610. held by any means, including electronic means, which allows for
611. discussion necessary to carry out business as is permitted by law.
612. Notice may be waived either before or after a meeting by any person
613. entitled thereto.
   
614. Section 8. Meetings of Substantial Importance or Emergency.
615. Meetings of the Sigma Xi Board of Directors may be held by
616. telephone conference or other appropriate means, as is permitted by
617. law, with such notice as the officer calling the meeting deems
618. appropriate. An electronic poll is acceptable to request Board
619. approval regarding urgent issues requiring a timely response or
620. action.
   
621. Section 9. The Executive Director. The Executive Director shall
622. be the custodian of the Seal of the Society and of the Archives of the
623. Society, and shall plan and direct the affairs of the Society in
624. accordance with the input of the Executive Committee subject to the
625. consent and policies established by the Board of Directors. Unless
626. the Board of Directors shall make other arrangements, the Executive
627. Director shall serve as the publisher of the publications of the
628. Society.
   
629. Section 10. (reserved)
   
630. BYLAW IV. Dues and Expenses of the Society
   
631. Section 1. Dues and Fees. A. Annual Dues. (i) How Set. Dues
632. for the active membership, and all associated fees, shall be recommended
633. annually by the Committee on Finance and approved by the Board.
   
634. B. Local Chapter Dues. Local chapter dues, if assessed, shall be
635. set in an amount and by procedures provided for in the bylaws of the
636. chapter. The chapter shall have the option of collecting them directly
637. or requesting the Treasurer of the Society to collect them.
   
638. Section 2. Expenses. A. Proper Expenses. The proper expenses
639. of the Society shall include, but are not limited to, the following:
640. operations of the Headquarters of the Society; publication of
641. American Scientist ; the Lectureships Program; Grants-in-Aid of
642. Research; authorized travel expenses of the staff, officers, members
643. of the Board of Directors and members of committees in accordance
644. with regulations approved by the Board of Directors; subvention of
645. travel for delegates attending an Assembly of Delegates in
646. accordance with regulations approved by the Assembly of Delegates
647. and local support allocations.
   
648. B. Local Support. The sum allocated from annual dues by the Board
649. of Directors for local support of the chapters shall be forwarded by the
650. Executive Director to the treasurers of the chapters, except that local
651. support shall be withheld from any chapter not currently in good standing
652. as defined in Bylaw III, Section 1 B.
   
653. BYLAW V. Seal and Insignia of the Society
   
654. Section 1. The Seal of the Society. The Seal of the Society shall
655. show a wreath of laurel, typifying the honorary character of
656. membership in the Society, arranged as an oval and enclosing the
657. words "Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society" at the top, and
658. the motto, in Greek, at the bottom. These words shall form an inner
659. oval, concentric with the first, punctuated with ten stars, and
660. enclosing a field illuminated by a Grecian lamp to represent the
661. Lamp of Research. Above the lamp, in the field of illumination,
662. shall be placed the monogram of the Society and the date, 1886,
663. when it was founded.
   
664. Section 2. Official Insignia. The official insignia shall be:
   
665. A. The Key. A gold watch-chain pendant, charm or pin consisting
666. of a four-piece monogram style of insignia in the shape of a key
667. described as follows: the base is a large, brightly polished Greek
668. letter X (Xi) scrolled out to shape and superimposed thereon a Greek
669. letter S (Sigma). Affixed to the top of the base letter is a decorative
670. post and ring, and at the base, a standard decorative key end. On the
671. reverse side of the key may be engraved the name of the chapter in
672. which the Member or Associate Member was initiated together with
673. the date of initiation and initiate's name.
   
674. B. The Ring. A gold insignia ring bearing the monogram of the
675. Society together with a wreath of laurel, appropriately mounted.
   
676. Section 3. Procurement. The various insignia shall be obtained
677. only through the Office of the Executive Director, who shall arrange
678. to have authorized orders filled by an official jeweler, the latter
679. appointed by the Executive Director with the approval of the Board
680. of Directors.
   
681. Section 4. Colors. The colors of the Society shall be electric blue
682. and white.
   
683. Section 5. Stationery. The official stationery of the Society shall
684. bear the monogram described in Article V of the Constitution.

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